Wednesday, March 24, 2021

Translation: The Writings of Liu Fenggang Deemed "Intelligence" by China's Courts

On August 6, 2004, the Intermediate People's Court of Hangzhou, Zhejiang found Liu Fenggang guilty of spying for, and illegally providing state intelligence to, people abroad, and sentenced him to a fixed term imprisonment of three years  and three years deprivation of political rights. See:

The court's judgment stated: "The National Administration for the Protection of State Secrets verification opinion proved that the three articles 'What I Understand About the Facts of Liu Baozhi's 'Cult' Case in Anshan, Liaoning,' 'Reports from the Motherland,' and 'Interrogated by the Police for Preaching the Gospel in Mountain District Outside of Beijing" are intelligence.'"

In order to provide context for Liu's conviction, a translation of the article "What I Understand About the Facts of Liu Baozhi's 'Cult' Case in Anshan, Liaoning," is provided below.


What I Understand About the Facts and History of the "Cult" case of Li Baozhi in Anshan, Liaoning

Liu Fenggang

Life Quarterly, No. 20, December 2001
Dear brothers and sisters in the Lord, I'm here to tell you about something. In Anshan, Liaoning, some brothers and sisters in the Lord were gathering at someone's home. As a result, three brothers and sisters were subjected to re-education through labor. Many brothers and sisters were fined for the offense of being "cultists." They say that our brothers and sisters are cultists, simply because someone (maybe someone at the public security agency who thinks that they are cultists) has the contact information of one of our sisters and a notice from a higher-level public security agency requested assistance in an investigation. These brothers and sisters in the Lord deny that they are "cultists." They have defended themselves through reconsideration, litigation, appeals, and other legal channels, and they are currently appealing. The detailed process is as follows.

There is a Christian church on Lvhua Street, Tiexi District, Anshan, Liaoning. There are more than 2,000 believers. In 1993, the believers were dissatisfied with the "Three-Self Society" because it went against the wishes of the believers. Arrangements were made for Elder Zhang Doe, who had serious financial problems, and Father Shi Doe, a fourth-ranked priest who had been expelled from the Catholic Church, to serve as president and secretary of our church, and some believers left the church. People met in their own homes and studied the Bible.
On November 11, 2000, when the brothers and sisters were meeting at Niu Zhongfang's home, some police officers from the Anshan Public Security Bureau arrived and took the brothers and sisters who were gathering to the Religious Affairs Department of the Anshan City Public Security Bureau to interrogate the brothers and sisters.

Later, I learned that the host of the meeting, Sister Li Baozhi, had contact with a person named Ma Yanling in Weihai. She had met with Ma Yanling once or twice about a job for her son. Ma Yanling may be regarded as a member of the "All Ranges Church" or involved in the "All Ranges Church." Until now, no one knew what kind of person Ma Yanling was. It's just that Li Baozhi's name was in Ma Yanling's address book. For this reason, the Public Security Bureau determined that the gathering of these brothers and sisters was also a gathering of the " All Ranges Church." These brothers and sisters had never heard of any "All Ranges Church." Their gatherings are completely organized in an orthodox Christian manner. They study the Bible together, and there engaged in anything evil or twisted. We talked with these brothers and sisters, and everyone is also critical of heretical and extreme religious activities.
However, these police officers determined that these brothers and sisters were gathering as the "All Ranges Church" and a "cult." They resorted to "fascist" tactics against these brothers and sisters, extorting confessions by torture, and beating them. Various punishments were used including slaps, punches and kicks, "small ropes," wooden sticks, bamboo poles, electric batons, and electric grills. I will not go into details here because we have the materials from the brothers and sisters. In the end, on December 25, 2000, the Anshan Public Security Bureau sent sister Li Baozhi to reeducation through labor for two years, and brothers Sun Derong and Hou Rongshan for one year each, and fined many brothers and sisters between 1,000 and 4,000 yuan, all for participating in the "All Ranges Church" cult.

Sisters Li Baozhiand Sun Dexiang, and Brother Hou Rongshan were dissatisfied with this, and on February 20, 2001, applied to the Provincial Re-education through Labor Committee for reconsideration. On March 19, 2001, the Provincial Re-education through Labor Committee decided to affirm the imposition of reeducation through labor in the name of illegally organizing cult activities. Sister Li Baozhi was dissatisfied with this and filed an administrative lawsuit at Anshan Lishan District People’s Court. On July 20, 2001, Anshan Lishan District People’s Court held that "the actions of the plaintiff completely violated the 'Regulations on the Administration of Religious Affairs of Liaoning Province' and seriously interfered with the normal order of religious life in the city, and created a somewhat bad influence." Sister Li Baozhi refused to accept this and appealed to the Anshan Intermediate Court.


For this reason, I, Liu Fenggang, an ordinary Christian in Beijing went to Anshan to participate as an observer.
The Anshan Intermediate People's Court is located on the north side of the northwest corner of the Anshan Center Square. The hearing time was 1:00 pm, October 18, 2001, and I arrived at the gate of the courthouse on time. There were three or four believers looking up at the main entrance, and I asked them if they had come to attend Li Baozhi's court hearing. They said yes. I went up to the third floor with them. When we got to the third floor, we found that the whole corridor was full of believers who were attending as observers. There were more than 100 people. After a while, the lawyer came to tell everyone that because there were too few seats, it was changed to the sixth trial hall on the fourth floor. When everyone arrived on the fourth floor, everyone stood quietly on both sides of the passage so as not to affect the offices in the building. About ten minutes later, it was reported that because the hall was still too small, it could only accommodate more than 20 people. The lawyer would not agree to that and went to contact the court officials again. Finally, it was changed to a hall on the second floor that could accommodate more than 100 people. Everyone entered the hall, and there were no empty seats in the auditorium.
In the courtroom, there were three seats positioned above the rest. On the left was a male judge, and on the right was a female judge. The presiding judge in the middle had not yet arrived. The clerk had not yet arrived. The appellant and lawyer Hao Qinghua and Liu Chaodong sat on the right. The appellant and sister Li Baozhi had not arrived. The police said that there were insufficient police present and Li Baozhi could not appear in court. The appellee's representative, Ma Yi from the first section of the Public Security Bureau, and another policeman sat on the left.
At 1:40, the clerk and the presiding judge came in. The presiding judge announced the opening of the hearing. He first asked the clerk to announce the court rules, and then he read the court procedures, and then asked the appellant and appellee whether they wished to request the recusal of any trial court personnel. Then, let the appellant and lawyer Hao Qinghua read out the letter of appeal on behalf of the appellant Li Baozhi.
The appeal statement stated: (1) The appellant never participated in the "All Ranges Church," and the appellant cannot be deemed to have participated in a "cult" just because the appellant's name is in a certain address book. The decision on reeducation through labor, the reconsideration decision on reeducation through labor, and the administrative judgment of the People's Court of Lishan did not provide facts and evidence of the "cult" activities that the appellant participated in. (2) The decision on reeducation through labor and the reconsideration decision on reeducation through labor penalized the appellant on the grounds of cult activities, but the court of first instance maintained the punishment on the basis of the "Regulations on the Administration of Religious Affairs of Liaoning Province" which has nothing to do with cults. The two contradict each other. (3) The court of first instance found that the plaintiff's "wailing and spiritual dancing" violated the "Regulations on the Administration of Religious Affairs of Liaoning Province" and severely disrupted social order, which was inconsistent with the facts. The appellant never behaved in this manner.
The appellee stated that their handling of Li Baozhi was done in accordance with top-secret documents issued by the Ministry of Public Security which could not be produced, that the legal procedures were reasonable, and the court was requested to uphold the original verdict.
The lawyer asked: "Did you have any real evidence when you were investigating Li Baozhi's participation in the ‘cult’ organization? Is it because she had the two books "The Key to the Mountain" and "Morning Light" in her home?"
The police said: "We sentenced Li Baozhi to reeducation through labor because she disrupted social order, not because of those two books."
The lawyer once again asked the police to give evidence of Li Baozhi's involvement in a "cult."
The police said: “When we captured Li Baozhi and others, they were organizing believers to cry and laugh, and dance a spirit dance.” Then, the police read a someone's confession.
At this time, the lawyer asked the presiding judge to call witnesses in the courtroom. The presiding judge asked: "Can your witnesses prove that Li Baozhi did not participate in the cult?"
The lawyer said: "The appellee's representative maintains that Li Baozhi was participating in the cult. They should produce evidence. My witnesses can only prove that they did not cry and laugh or dance a spirit dance on the day they were arrested."
The presiding judge pondered for a while and agreed to call witnesses.
Witness Sister Doe came to the courtroom, and the presiding judge said word by word: "You will be legal liability for your testimony."
Our sister said: "I know."
The lawyer asked the witness: "When did you and Li Baozhi leave the church and start to run a house church?"
Answer: "It was 1993 when the church was fighting (dialect: fighting) when we left."
Question: "Do you know the ‘All Ranges Church’?"
Answer: "No, I don't."
Question: "Did Li Baozhi cry, laugh, and danced in your meetings?"

Answer: "No."
The presiding judge also asked the police officer (the appellee's representative) to question the witness.
The police officer came up and their first question was: "Is your meeting place approved and registered by the government?"
Answer: "I don't know."
Question: "Your home is so close, why go to a house so far away for a meeting?"
Answer: "Big churches and home gatherings - I go to both."
Question: "Have you never cried during a gathering? Christians should not lie."
Answer: "I haven't cried."
The presiding judge ordered the witness to step down. The lawyer again called up a believer, and the presiding judge told him in the same harsh tone: "You have to bear legal responsibility for your words." After that, the lawyer asked: "Please tell us about the situation on the day you were arrested."
The believer said: "After we were arrested, we were all locked up in different rooms of the Religious Affairs Office on the eighth floor of the Public Security Bureau. They tortured us and screams were often heard from the rooms."
The lawyer asked: "Was there crying? Was there screaming?"
Answer: "It was the screams caused by beatings."
The lawyer said, "Go on."
The believer said: "I saw Ma Yi (Religious Affairs director) walking in the passage holding the female believer's hair with his hands. They also slapped my face and made me sign a confession that they had already written out."
Question: "Did you sign?"
Answer: "If I didn't sign, they would beat me. It was all forced."
The presiding judge said to the witness: "Step down." Then he asked the judge to read a transcript of an interrorgator who came to the church to question the elder Zhang Doe:
Question: "What position do you hold in the church?"
Answer: "I am the elder of the church."
Question: "Is Li Baozhi a believer in your church?"
Answer: "Since leaving the church in 1993, she has not been our congregant."
Question: "Do you know whether Li Baozhi participates in the 'All Ranges' cult?"
Answer: "After she left the church what she participated in had nothing to do with us."
Question: "Are the "Morning Light" and "the Key to the Mountain" confiscated from her books from your church?"
Answer: "Believers read the Bible, and there are no other church books."
After reading, the lawyer immediately produced a receipt showing that the book was sold by the church, and handed over to the court an  audit report regarding the elder Zhang Doe's serious economic problems.
The presiding judge was obviously a little impatient. He took out the notice from the Ministry of Public Security instructing the Provincial Public Security Department to investigate Li Baozhi's cult and read one section. The lawyer pointed out that this notice only ordered an investigation, and there was no conclusion. It did not say that Li Baozhi was a cultist. The Municipal Public Security Bureau designated Li Baozhi as a cultist solely because she had the name of Ma Yanling from Weihai, which is not right.
The presiding judge said the court would now hear final arguments.
The lawyer said: "In the above trial process, the appellee never produced any piece of evidence that Li Baozhi participated in a cult. China is constantly improving its legal system and has signed the the United Nations' 'Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights' and the 'Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.' It is hoped that the court's adjudication will be just and this Christian will be given a clean slate."
The appellee stated: "The nature of the cult is anti-government. The characteristic of anti-government is that it does not comply with the administration of the "Three-Selfs." Although the State allows believers to gather in their own homes, they are limited to their own homes. We believe that Li Baozhi's treatment was legal."
The lawyer immediately pressed the question, since it was a disturbance of social order, she would only be fined a fine of less than 1,000 yuan, and she should not be re-education through labor.
The presiding judge interrupted the lawyer's speech and announced that the court had listened extensively to the opinions of the appellant and appellee. A judgement would be rendered after review and discussion, and the court trial had concluded.
On October 23, 2001, before dawn, Li Baozhi's son and I went to the Anshan Railway Station to visit his mother in the correctional home. At this time, the sky was already bright. Although the weather was fine, the sun was shining, and there were no clouds in the sky, my mood was always heavy. I couldn't stop thinking about the scene of the court hearing on the 18th. Why did the public security agency not have any evidence, and rely solely on a higher-level public security agency's co-investigation notice to sentence our sister to two years of reeducation through labor? Why was an elderly sister who is a mother subjected to humiliation and beatings? Why is normal religious life being tarred as a cult?
The train moved forward rhythmically. Sister Li Baozhi’s son had gotten up too early and so took a nap on a small table. This child who had lost his mother's love did not have a job after graduation. His father was an honest man working as a gatekeeper at a factory. His mother was arrested. His father was always afraid and did not dare to appear in court. He is the only one who travels between Shenyang and Anshan every month taking with him the warmth of the brothers and sisters in the church.
At nearly ten o'clock in the morning the train pulled into Shenyang Station. We took a bus in front of the square to the suburbs, and then we changed to a small bus going to the Masanjia Correctional Institution 30 kilometers away from the city.
There is no high-walled electrified fence and no armed police standing guard. The sign says "Ideological Education Base of Liaoning Province." Two security guards sat in the front room. We greeted them and entered the gate of the "base."
After entering the gate and walking a long way, we came to the First Brigade of the Reeducation-through-Labor Women's Institute where Sister Li Baozhi was located. After negotiating with the police, the police promised that we could see Sister Li Baozhi. At about 12 noon, Sister Li Baozhi was taken to the canteen by a "captain" who did not wear a police uniform and handed her over to the female policeman in charge of the canteen. The policewoman pointed to the table where we were sitting, and Li Baozhi came over. She is not a tall woman, she had a round face, and her small eyes showed a gentle joy. I hurried forward, held her hand, and hurriedly introduced myself, and said: "I am a brother from Beijing. I was invited by your church and entrusted by our brothers and sisters in Beijing to come to Anshan to participate in your appeal court hearing. I am here to visit you today."
At this time, I noticed that Sister Li Baozhi's eyes were welling up. My hand is held tightly.
I asked Sister Li to sit down and told her in detail the whole process of the hearing at the Anshan Intermediate Court on October 18. When she heard that the lawyer went all out to ask the other party for evidence of Li Baozhi's involvement in a cult, but the other party still could not produce it, Li Baozhi said: "I did not appeal on behalf of myself. I suffered and was beaten for the Lord. I can bear it.  But to call the Lord’s church a cult, I will never agree to that."
I asked Sister Li Baozhi: "Have they beaten you?"
Answer: "I was beaten in the Religious Affairs Office of the Public Security Bureau, but I was never beaten in the correctional center. Ma Yi from the Religious Affairs Office came to the correctional center and threatened me twice."
I said to Sister Li, "Would you please tell me about the assault in the Public Security Bureau?"
Answer: "Very well. On November 11, 2000, I was arrested during a gathering and detained in the Religious Affairs Office on the eighth floor of the Public Security Bureau. That night, I heard the screams of two brothers, Hou Rongshan and Sun Dexiang, accompanied by the sound of electric shocks, and two sisters were beaten by them that night. Sister Zhang Yaru was taken to the hospital for resuscitation that night and then brought back to the Public Security Bureau, and the used handcuffs on sister Niu Zhongfang."
Sister Li Baozhi cried and couldn't speak anymore. I put some food in Sister Li's bowl and let her calm down.
Sister Li went on to say: "They handcuffed Sister Niu's hands to the heating pipes, and her feet were tied. The hateful thing is that the policemen sat on Sister Niu's body and shocked Sister Niu's upper body and the soles of her feet with electric batons. In the second half of the night, they used a small rope to tie the sister's shoulders, so that the sister vomited blood, they forced her to confess that I once said, "The church cannot be saved", and when we gathered I cried and danced. Sister Niu was tortured like this just because she would not say anything. Since you came you can go and ask about it."
I nodded. Then I asked: "How did they treat you?"

Answer: "They also used electric shocks, slapped my face, and slapped my mouth. The interrogators knew that I had a heart condition and had prepared a box of rescue medicine for me. Religious Affairs Office Director Ma Yi also said: 'Do you know what fascism is?' the implication was to let me know that he was a fascist, so all I could do was succumb. I was held for a month without confessing, and then I was interrogated for three days and two nights, and I was not allowed to sleep, and my hands were handcuffed until I could no longer bear it. In my delirium, they wrote out a statement and had me sign it without letting me read the contents, and even said: 'You can only revise it, you can't rewrite it. So just sign it!'"

Time passed quickly, and our visit with Sister Li was over.
Saying goodbye to Sister Li Baozhi, we walked out of the door of the labor camp.
Liu Fenggang, a Christian from Mainland China, now living in Beijing.




生命季刊 第20期 2001年12月



    鞍山市中级人民法院坐落在鞍山市中心广场的西北角的北侧,开庭时间是2001年10月18日,下午一点,我按时来到法院的大门前。大门口有三四个信徒仰头张望,我问他们是来参加李宝芝开庭的吗?他们说是,我和他们上了三楼,到了三楼一看,整个楼道内,已站满了参加旁听的信徒,有一百多人。过了一会儿,律师来告诉大家,因座位太少,改在四楼第六审判厅,大家到了四楼,大家安静地站在通道两侧,以免影响楼里的办公。大概又过了十分钟,传出因该厅还是小,只能容下20多人旁听,律师不同意,又去找院方联系。最后改在二楼能容下 100 多人的大厅。大家进了大厅,旁听席上座无虚席。

刘凤钢  中国大陆基督徒,现居北京。

Monday, March 22, 2021

Translation: The Writings of Ilham Tohti Deemed "Separatist" by China's Courts

On September 23, 2014, the Intermediate People’s Court of Urumqi found defendant Ilham Tohti guilty of separatism in the (2014) Wu  Intermediate Criminal First Instance No. 100 Criminal Judgment, and sentenced him to life imprisonment, deprivation of political rights for life, and confiscation of all personal property. See: Ilham Tohti Criminal Judgment as Summarized by the Supreme People's Court. In its summary of the judgment, the Supreme People's Court cited three articles used as evidence  against Tohti in his trial:

  • The article "A Group of Han Students Assaulted Uyghur Students at the Central University for Nationalities," which it said "maliciously created ethnic tension."
  • The "Summary of Typical Cases of Deprivation and Violation of the Freedom of Religious Belief of Xinjiang Uyghur People," which it said "libeled the Chinese government as engaging in long-term repressive suppression and restriction of religious freedom in Xinjiang, and infringing on legal religious rights" and "aggressively attacked China's ethnic and religious policies."
  • The article "The 6.26 Incident and the Myth of Multi-ethnic Harmonious Coexistence," which it said  attacked the government, distorted the truth, and incited ethnic hatred. 

In order to provide context for Ilham Tohti's conviction, translations of what is believed to be those articles are provided below. The original Chinese language sources for these articles were:

A Group of Han Students Assaulted Uyghur Students at the Central University for Nationalities

Time: 2013/04/26 Column: News Editor: admin

Uyghur Online Newsletter (Correspondent Tömür)

On the 24th, a group of Han students beat Uyghur students at the Central University for Nationalities. A Uyghur student was severely injured.

A Uyghur student from the Central University for Nationalities revealed to Uyghur Online that on the 24th a Uyghur student named Maimatijiang was beaten by four Han roommates in the dormitory. Maimatijiang was severely injured. He is now receiving treatment in the hospital. His eye was severely injured and the doctor said that he might be permanently blind.

It is understood that the victim was a student from the Uyghur Language and Literature Department of the Central University for Nationalities, and the perpetrators were Han students from the Uyghur Language and Literature Department. There were eight people in the dormitory, all of whom were students from the Uyghur Language and Literature Department. Four of them were Uyghur students. The other 4 people were Han nationality. On the 24th, the two sides had a quarrel in the dormitory and four Han students beat Maimatijiang. The other three Uyghur students in the dormitory were not there at the time of the incident. Four violent Han students were taken away by the police. Three of them were released and one was still in the police station.

The Department of Uyghur Language and Literature of the Central University for Nationalities began to recruit Han students beginning in 2011. The classes these Han students attend are separate from ordinary students in the Department of Uyghur Language and Literature. They are called "level zero classes." However, these Han students live together with the Uyghur students.

It was reported that after the incident, a counselor at the Uyghur Language and Literature Department hid the violent Han students and tried to conceal the evidence at the scene. As a result, the scene of the crime was disturbed. The counselor also sheltered three other Han students and said, "If anyone asks about it, just say that you were breaking up a scuffle."

After the incident, the emotionally excited Uyghur students of the Central University for Nationalities asked the school to deal with the incident and punish the perpetrators, but the school has not yet given a convincing explanation or disposition. It is reported that the Central University for Nationalities is worried about group conflicts between Uyghur and Han students and strictly blocked the news.

According to another source, on the 22nd, about 30 Han students ganged up on a Uyghur student at Beijing Jiaotong University.

In fact, these two cases are not isolated cases. In recent years, Uyghurs in the Mainland have been beaten from time to time, including Uyghur merchants doing business in the Mainland. The Uyghur students at the Central University for Nationalities were beaten until they were seriously injured one day after the "Bachu Incident." It is currently not clear whether this incident is related to the "Bachu Incident."

Uyghur Online Report: The Current Status of Uyghur Religious Freedom

Time: 2013/03/09 Column: Yiliham Tohti

A Brief Discussion of the Status Quo of Religious Freedom of the Uyghur Ethnic Group

Uyghur Online Report

Ilham Tohti, Erhat

[Abstract]: In the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Xinjiang authorities regard religious beliefs as "disharmonious factors," and in the name of stopping "illegal religious activities," they have strengthened their religious control and pressure on Uyghurs. This approach of the authorities has long been met with dissatisfaction and opposition from Uyghurs. These practices and policies of the Xinjiang authorities have created antagonisms between the Uyghurs and the government, and has intensified the conflicts between Uyghurs and Han. Many Uyghurs have always been dissatisfied with the authorities' policies, but due to the general environment, they dare to be angry but dare not speak out. While the policies of the Xinjiang authorities seem to have played a deterrent effect, in fact these policies are accumulating dissatisfaction among Uyghurs. If the Xinjiang authorities continue this extreme religious policy, even if it will not cause strong resistance from Uyghurs for the time being, in the long run it will deepen the barriers between ethnic groups and deepen the dissatisfaction of Uyghurs, which may eventually lead to a series of resistance and conflicts with Uyghurs.

[Keywords]: Uyghurs, religious freedom, restrictions

China is a multi-religious country. Chinese religious believers mainly believe in Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, and Christianity. According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 100 million believers of various religions in China, more than 85,000 venues for religious activities, about 300,000 religious clerics, and more than 3,000 religious organizations.[1]

Chinese officials say that citizens can freely choose, express their beliefs, and show their religious identity. In the "Constitution of the People's Republic of China," freedom of religious belief is a basic right of citizens. Article 36 of the Constitution stipulates: "Citizens of the People's Republic of China have freedom of religious belief." "No state agency, social organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in or not to believe in a religion, or discriminate against citizens who believe in religion or citizens who do not believe in religion." "The state protects normal religious activities." It also stipulates: "No one may use religion to engage in activities that disrupt social order, harm the health of citizens, or hinder the national education system." "Religious groups and religious affairs are not subject to the domination of foreign powers."[2]

China's "Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law," "General Principles of Civil Law," "Education Law," "Labor Law," "Compulsory Education Law," "People's Congress Election Law," "Village Committee Organization Law," "Advertisement Law," and other laws also stipulate that citizens, regardless of their religious beliefs, have the right to vote and to be elected; the legal property of religious groups is protected by law; education is separated from religion, and citizens regardless of religious beliefs have equal opportunities to receive education in accordance with the law; people of all ethnic groups must respect each other's language, customs, and religious beliefs; citizens shall not be discriminated against in employment because of different religious beliefs; advertisements and trademarks must not contain content that discriminates against ethnic groups or religions.

However, for a long time the restrictions on, and suppression of, religion by the Xinjiang authorities has become more prominent and serious. The Xinjiang authorities’ restrictions on Uyghurs’ freedom of religion and their own local regulations and policies are contrary to China’s Constitution, relevant laws and regulations, and China’s ethnic policies.

1. The Current Situation of Restrictions on the Religious Freedom of the Uyghurs

In the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, religious control and suppression policies against Uyghurs have existed for a long time. The Xinjiang authorities regard religious beliefs as "disharmonious factors" and in the name of stopping "illegal religious activities", they have strengthened their religious control over, and pressure on, Uyghurs. Since the "July 5 Incident," the Xinjiang authorities have strengthened restrictions on the religious freedom of Uyghurs, and the religious freedom situation in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region has rapidly deteriorated. In recent years, the Xinjiang authorities have continuously strengthened their religious suppression, and their religious control policies have been continuously upgraded. The Xinjiang authorities' religious suppression has increased in breadth and depth.

As the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region’s religious control policies continue to escalate, it not only restricts Uyghurs from growing beards and wearing headscarves, but also links these policies with the ability to enjoy subsistence allowances, and prohibits non-governmental organizations from the Hajj, and strictly restricts the number of Hajj. Only government personnel can go to Hajj. The authorities also forced individual employees of private enterprises to sign a pledge that interferes with citizens’ freedom of religious belief. Forcing employers and employees in some places in Xinjiang to sign a guarantee banning fasting, including that they and their relatives are not allowed to participate in Ramadan activities, and offenders will be expelled from public office. It also organized Ramadan stability maintenance teams at the village and county levels to strictly check gatherings and religious activities during Ramadan. In addition, Communist Party cadres are assigned to be stationed in mosques, mosques are subjected to official interviews every week, and the government stipulates the content of the Friday sermons.

As the Xinjiang authorities stepped up their religious pressure, there were even serious violations of human rights that prohibited women wearing veils from entering public places such as hospitals, state agencies, and shopping malls. In addition, the Xinjiang authorities have also strengthened the investigation and punishment of youths in the Uyghur Autonomous Region who participate in religious activities. They have not only strengthened the atheism education for Uyghur youths in schools, but also adopted compulsory measures such as requiring students to sign a pledge not to participate in religious activities. It is not uncommon for Uyghur college students to be warned, suspended, or even expelled from school because of their worship.

In recent years, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has also seen strong suppression and dilution of people’s freedom of religion. For example, in December 2011, Dunmaili Street in Yining City launched a propaganda campaign called "Reduce Religious Consciousness, Advocate a Civilized and Healthy Life," the goal of which was to "completely eliminate" local ethnic minority women and young people wearing clothing with obvious Islamic colors (such as long robes or black clothing, etc.) and "abnormal phenomena" such as men growing long beards and people going about veiled. In addition, in the Uyghur Autonomous Region inspections of mosques and other religious venues are extremely strict. If minors are found entering the mosque, the Imam and the person in charge of the mosque will be punished.

In addition, the Xinjiang authorities have also delineated 26 manifestations of "illegal" religious activities. The content, which already violates the  Constitution and laws, includes: unauthorized editing, translation, publishing, printing, copying, distribution, sale, ​​and dissemination of illegal religious publications and audio-visual products; using the Internet and mobile phones to spread religion; using satellite receivers to watch overseas religious radio and television programs; going abroad for Hajj without authorization; and accepting religious donations from foreign organizations or individuals.

Such unilateral and extreme local policies issued by the Xinjiang authorities not only violate the Constitution and related laws, but also seriously violate the human rights of the Uyghurs. Such extreme practices by the Xinjiang authorities continue to arouse dissatisfaction among Uyghurs.

2. Restrictions on the Religious Freedom of the Uyghurs are Different from those for other Muslims

In the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the Xinjiang authorities have stepped up religious suppression, but other domestic Muslims will generally not be subject to such restrictions and suppression. Take the Hui Muslims in the Hui area as an example. Although the inland Hui people are also facing a series of problems such as the Hajj, there are not as many restrictions on religious activities of inland Hui Muslims as there are in Xinjiang. For example, inland Hui Muslims will not be forced to eat during Ramadan; the airports and other public venues in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have worship rooms exclusively for Muslims; and the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region also has Islamic Banks. Compared with Turkic Uyghur Muslims, the treatment of Hui Muslims in terms of religion is relatively relaxed, and the religious atmosphere and religious policies in the Uyghur region cannot be compared with the Hui regions.

In the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Xinjiang authorities’ regulations on restricting religious freedom appear to target Uyghurs. Muslims such as Kazakh, Kirgiz, and Hui in Xinjiang do not face such restrictions.

3. The Impact of Restrictions on Uyghur's Religion

The Xinjiang authorities have been taking the wrong path on religious issues, and they have moved further and further to the left. All kinds of measures to strengthen restrictions and suppress religious freedom have put significant pressure on people of faith, and there is a strong correlation between these policies and many of mass incidents in Xinjiang in recent years.

China's State Administration of Religion recently issued a letter saying that it prohibits the use of administrative orders to deal with religious issues, and that simple and brute means cannot be used when with people of faith and believers. Nevertheless, in the Uygur Autonomous Region the use of administrative orders to deal with religious issues in a simple and brutal manner has become the modus operandi of the Xinjiang authorities.

In the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Xinjiang authorities regard religious beliefs as "disharmonious factors" and strengthen their religious control and pressure on Uyghurs in the name of stopping "illegal religious activities." This approach of the authorities has long been met with dissatisfaction and opposition from Uyghurs. These practices and policies of the Xinjiang authorities have created antagonisms between the Uyghurs and the government, and intensified the conflicts between Uyghurs and Han. Many Uyghurs have always been dissatisfied with the authorities' policies, but due to the general environment, they dare to be angry but dare not speak out. While the policies of the Xinjiang authorities seem to have played a deterrent effect, in fact these policies are accumulating dissatisfaction among Uyghurs. If the Xinjiang authorities continue this extreme religious policy, even if it will not cause strong resistance from Uyghurs for the time being, in the long run it will deepen the barriers between ethnic groups and deepen the dissatisfaction of Uyghurs, which may eventually lead to a series of resistance and conflicts with Uyghurs.

At the same time this is happening, the Xinjiang authorities are wantonly suppressing the religious, cultural, and political life of Uyghurs, which has caused anger and dissatisfaction among Uyghurs. If the Xinjiang authorities continue to restrict the freedom of religious belief of the Uyghurs, continue to suppress and marginalize Uyghurs, and Uyghurs cannot obtain channels to express their dissatisfaction, it may prompt more Uyghurs to become radicalized, and some Uyghurs may resort to violence. A series of incidents in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in recent years have proved this point.

4. Conclusion

In real life, due to the special cohesive power of faith, Islam has penetrated into all aspects of Uyghur culture. Uyghurs have believed in Islam for thousands of years. Uyghurs’ ideology, historical legends, language, literature and art, architecture, sculpture, astronomical calendar, medical techniques, etc. are all deeply imprinted with Islam. At the same time, Islam has also become an important element of Uyghur psychology. Islam has been deeply immersed in the spirit of the Uighur people over the course of its long history. Therefore, Islam is not only a belief for the Uyghurs, but also a part of the Uyghur ethnic culture and way of being, to the point of being a way of life.

But at present, the policies adopted by the government of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region to suppress freedom of religious belief and some local policies are not only disrespectful to Uyghurs and their culture, but also violate China's Constitution and related laws. Xinjiang authorities use of a series of brutal means to deal with Uyghurs, restricting and suppressing the religious freedom of Uyghurs, is inconsistent with the country's ethnic and religious policies.

In today's world, the trend  in the international community is to protect the rights of ethnic minorities. "The protection of the rights of ethnic minorities is not only an issue of human rights and development in the world today, but also an issue of the unity, stability, and world peace of sovereign states. 3] In the international community, the content of ethnic minority rights is more extensive and specific. In addition, all sovereign countries have strengthened their legislation to protect the rights of ethnic minorities. Today, when the protection of the rights of ethnic minorities has become a trend, the Xinjiang authorities' restrictions and suppression of Uyghurs in all aspects, including religion, runs counter to this trend.

Therefore, in summary, the Xinjiang authorities should stop restricting Uyghurs’ peaceful religious activities, stop their gross interference in Uyghurs’ traditional religious activities, respect the Constitution and relevant laws and regulations, and allow all people with religious beliefs throughout the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, including Uyghurs, to have the right to freedom of worship as stipulated in the Constitution and related laws.

Reference Materials:

1. Hu Xingdong, "Trends in the Protection of Minority Rights in the International Community," Journal of Yunnan University for Nationalities, Vol. 23, No. 4, July 2006.

2. "Overview of Religions in China": Government Portal of the PRC (

3. "Uyghur Online" website (

[1], [2] "Overview of Religions in China": Government Portal of the PRC (

[3] Hu Xingdong (Trends in the Protection of Minority Rights in the International Community)

Supplement: An Overview of Typical Cases of Deprivation and Violation of the Freedom of Religious Belief of Xinjiang Uyghurs

Author: Ilham Tohti

Respecting and protecting freedom of religious belief is a long-term basic policy of the government of China in dealing with religious issues. As a citizen’s right, freedom of religious belief is guaranteed by the Constitution and laws.

As an autonomous ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, almost all the people believe in Islam. According to the Constitution, they should have the right to freedom of religious which should not be subject to interference by any organization or individual.

Religion occupies a very important position in Uyghur culture and in the daily life of Uyghurs. Since the 1950s, the Xinjiang government has attempted to eliminate the ethnic consciousness, culture, and religious heritage of the Uyghur people. The government has adopted various measures to interfere with Uyghur's religious freedom. For a long time, authorities have interferred in the religious rights of Uyghurs, and Xinjiang authorities have imposed religious pressure on Uyghurs and other religious people on the grounds of cracking down on “illegal religious activities” to restrict their legal religious rights. The deprivation and violation of the freedom of religious belief of Uyghurs in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region can be summarized as follows:

1. The Formulation of Unconstitutional Local Policies and Regulations

As defined in Article 26 of the "Illegal Religious Activities," this provision violates the relevant provisions of the "Constitution" on religious freedom. See the link for details:

2. Prohibitions on Prayer

Prayer is one of the five pillars of Islam, and one of the religious obligations that believers must fulfill. In addition, Islam recommends that children be familiarized with prayer at the age of seven and begin praying at the age of ten.

There is a warning sign in front of every mosque in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: State officials, party members, league members, people under 18, and women are prohibited from entering the mosque to engage in religious activities. (See photo below)


Photo: Minors and school students are not allowed to enter

In addition, local departments in Xinjiang also prohibit believers from praying in public places. The picture below is a "warm reminder" formulated by the Xinhe County Health Bureau: Naimazi (prayer) and reciting scripture are prohibited in public places.

(An announcement from Kezhou People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.)

In addition, there has never been dedicated spaces for prayer in government departments, public security departments, schools, hospitals, various business halls, and office spaces in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. This is very inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution, and it can be said that the right of believers to engage in religious activities is not respected at all.

Case: Two students from Shisanhu Village, Samuyuzi Village, Yining County, entered the mosque to worship. The authorities imposed punishment on the Beizhuang Mosque and the people involved. (News link:

3. Interference in Fasting

The ninth month of the Islamic calendar is Ramadan. According to the teachings of Islam, every healthy adult Muslim must fulfill the obligation of fasting (from dawn to sunset) during this month.


1) According to the Associated Press report on August 3, 2012, several municipal, county, and township governments in Xinjiang posted orders on their websites to prohibit or prevent members of the Communist Party of China, civil servants, students, and teachers from fasting during Ramadan. The official explanation is that they are prohibited from fasting for health reasons. (Associated Press: China Prevents Uighur Muslims from Fasting

2) The content of the notice issued by the Akto County Discipline Inspection Commission on August 21, 2009: Party members, cadres, public officials (including retirees), and school students are strictly prohibited from participating in religious activities such as fasting. Once the participants are investigated and punished, they will be dealt with strictly. No exceptions will be tolerated. Party members will be expelled from the Party regardless of whether they are in office or retired, public officials will be fired, and "the four seniors" will lose their qualifications as "the four seniors." Notice on the Supervision of Social Stability Work and the Compliance with Political Discipline by Party Members and Cadres During the "Ramadan" Period (

3) Xinjiang authorities forced Uyghur restaurant to open during Ramadan (News Link: []

4. Restrictions the Freedom of Believers to Dress

According to Islamic rules, except their hands and feet, women's bodies, including their hair, are "intimate." They are not allowed to be seen by any man except their biological parents and their husband. They must wear a veil or a hijab when they go out. Uyghur Online’s commentary believes that the religious implications of Uyghur women wearing a headscarf and wearing a veil have some similarities, but wearing a veil is more focused on pursuing a religious belief, whereas wearing a headscarf is more focused on pursuing a kind of beauty, and the religious implications have taken a back seat.

However, various departments in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region restrict women’s freedom to dress in different ways and discriminate against women wearing veils. For example, the slogan of a certain place in Xinjiang: Women wearing veils and giribafu costumes are not welcome in Baghchi Town.

Kashgar City Library prohibits women wearing headscarves, veils, and shawls from entering the library.

(Photo note: There is a discrepancy between Uyghur and Chinese in the picture. The Uyghur says: Those wearing a headscarf, wearing a veil, and wearing a shawl are prohibited from entering the library.)

A hospital in Xinjiang stipulates that people wearing veils, people wearing giribafu costumes, and people under 45 with long beards are prohibited from entering. Worship is prohibited in the hospital.

The Xinjiang authorities also regarded wearing a veil as having an influence on "modern civilized society" and openly discriminate against women who wear a veil. Women wearing veils are forbidden to ride in cars, and they are also forbidden to enter hospitals, schools, shopping malls, and homes for the families of state units. Insurance companies and other units refuse to handle business for women wearing veils.

(Slogan: Ladies, women, please lift the veil, please don't influence modern civilized society, the photo location is Urumqi.)

(Photo note: There is a discrepancy between Uyghur and Chinese in the picture. The Uyghur text says: Please lift your veil when you get on the bus and do not influence modern civilized society. The location of the photo is not specified.)


1) Kashgar prohibits those wearing headscarves and shawls from entering the library. ( []

2) A street in Yining, Yili Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region launched a campaign to "dilute religious consciousness" to eliminate "abnormal phenomena" such as local ethnic minority women and teenagers wearing Arab costumes, the growing of long beards, and going about veiled. (News link: []

5. Restrictions on Believers Studying Religious Knowledge

In the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, except for the very few places designated by the government to study religious knowledge, other places for religious study are designated as "illegal" places for teaching scriptures. Moreover, the government-designated religious knowledge study sites are for the purpose of training Imams (religious affairs personnel of mosques), and ordinary people cannot enter to study.

In addition, local authorities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, especially southern Xinjiang, have recently begun conducting searches for religious books, and some places even confiscated the Islamic classic "Quran." Uyghur Online reported on January 13 that according to locals, a Yingjisha County government department used the pretext of offering condolences to conduct a search of the homes of some families, remove all books and pictures relating to Islam, and record the number of worshippers in the homes. (

Related Cases:

1) A Uyghur teenager was arrested for studying the Quran and died mysteriously in a detention center (News Link:

2) Yining People's Court sentenced 7 Hui citizens to three to four years in prison for "using superstition to undermine law enforcement." (News Link:

3) In Yining County, Uyghur Autonomous Region, Muslim children went to a mosque over the holy period (an event to honor the Prophet). After learning this news, the deputy county magistrate called all the Imams of the mosque to hold a meeting and conducted a Cultural Revolution-style struggle session. (News Link: []

6. Limits on Hajj

Hajj is one of the basic tenets of Islam that all believers must abide by. Every adult Muslim who is financially and physically capable has the religious obligation to worship in Mecca.

There are many restrictions on Uyghur Muslims’ Hajj in Xinjiang, and the regulation of passports and cracking down on unorganized Hajj are the most important factors. (Related news: []

7. Forbidding Young People Under 18 to Participate in any Form of Religious Activities, While Schools Conduct Atheism Education

Case: Keqikebulake Primary School in Samyuzi Township, Yining County, Uyghur Autonomous Region issued the "Notice of Legal Provisions for Parents, Teachers and Students Not Allowed to Participate in Religious Activities," prohibiting students from participating in religious activities (News Link: http://www.


8. Mandatory Imposition of Policies to Dilute Religious Consciousness

Case 1: A street in Yining, Yili Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region launched a campaign to "dilute religious consciousness" to eliminate "abnormal phenomena" such as local ethnic minority women and teenagers wearing Arab costumes, the growing of long beards, and going about veiled. (News link: [])

(Screenshot of Yining Government Network.)

Case 2: In order to dilute the religious atmosphere and purify religious activities, Hotan City prohibited veiled women from entering shopping malls and prohibits shopping malls from selling religious clothing and audio-visual products. (News Link: 

The 6.26 Incident and the Myth of Multi-Ethnic Coexistence

2009-07-01 23:05:29 Author: yarkant Source: Uighur Online

The conflict now appears to have been carried out according to a plan. Originally, it was rumored that it could be resolved after investigation, but no one thought that the matter would turn into a violent conflict. There were many doubts about it.

At present, it can be seen from video and other related materials that a factory in Shaoguan was already in a state of anarchy when the conflict occurred. This gave some extremists the opportunity to kill and loot, and there was no evil that was beyond them. It cannot be ruled out that there will be more ethnic vendettas between Uyghur and Han in the future. This is also the most serious conflict that has erupted since the Xinjiang government organized Uyghur rural laborers (most of whom are unmarried Uyghur women from rural areas) to work in Han areas, and this conflict is likely to continue in other areas. Similar conflicts have occurred between the Uyghur and Han nationalities in the past, but this time the conflict is different. It almost always happens in circumstances where Uyghur migrant workers come to a local area where they have no ties. This inevitably makes me think that these conflicts are all manipulated behind the scenes by a Han extremist organization or force. We have found that the 6.26 incident was more organized than the previous "conflicts." The people involved in the incident were quickly organized, held similar weapons and sticks, and brutally beat Uyghurs at the scene.

But no matter who is behind the organization of these conflicts, their goals have obviously been achieved, and much has been destroyed. Violence against individual ethnic groups is unacceptable. The Uyghur online webmaster issued a statement on the day of the incident, calling on Uyghurs to remain calm and restrained, and refrain from making remarks and statements that intensify contradictions. No one was expecting the 6.26 incident. I was like all kind people in being psychologically unprepared for this. Uyghur online webmaster Ilham Tohti said: This incident will change our thinking. The attack on the Uyghur ethnic group in Shaoguan was intended to "cleanse" and was a signal for Uyghur migrant workers to leave Shaoguan and other Han areas. One cannot turn a blind eye to the fact that the violence was racially motivated. He also said that the local government has the responsibility to protect the rights of everyone. The Xinjiang local government’s policy of large-scale export of Uyghur rural labor to the inland is done for, as people’s lives are being taken in a most tragic way.

At present, Uyghurs have not held a funeral for the deceased (perhaps political interests require that the local government does not allow the funerals, or requires they be held in secret). However, people believe that even at the funeral, what they will hear will be how bad those mainlanders are, and how they should not respond to the government's call to send their children to the far-off lands of the Han... The anger in people's hearts may never subside. The events that took place on 6.26 highlighted the choice faced by the Uyghur people, either to build a society based on the values ​​of tolerance, democracy, and national autonomy, or to live in chaos and suffering.

To quote Ilham Tohti's speech on the 27th:

Suppose that “Xinjiang people stole from the Xuri factory in Shaoguan many times, and the first rape case occurred on June 14. After the victim reported the incident to the factory, the Xinjiang rapist was only fired. There was another rape just a few days later. A female worker in the dormitory area was forcibly dragged into the dormitory by Xinjiang people and raped. The Xinjiang people were released after being detained for only a few days after the incident. It seems that they can be exempt from legal controls. The matter had not subsided when a third rape occurred again. When the case was reported to the security department, the security department refused to accept it."

These statements are true, and the subsequent reaction and mob behavior was simply a crime against innocent Uyghurs!

"In the end, all the Han Chinese could no longer stand it. At around 22:00 on June 25, dozens of people rushed to the Xinjiang people's dormitory with iron rods to beat the Xinjiang people. As soon as the violence broke out, the Xinjiang people also brought out regulated knives to fight. The number of Han people increased from dozens of people at the beginning to more than 300 people. Every Han person was desperate to retaliate against the Xinjiang people. Many Xinjiang people broke through the fences and fled back to the mountains. This continued until three o'clock in the morning when the anti-riot team arrived and fired their guns. The anti-riot team had about 20 military cars and more than 30 police cars. Dozens of people from both groups were seriously injured. According to reports, several Xinjiang people died! The scene was a mass of wolf thorns, with semi-human-sized pools of blood in dozens of places. There are more than 100 dormitory windows broken in the dormitory area, and the fire extinguishers in four dormitories had been taken down to use in the fight, and each dormitory had a total of 7 floors. There were about 200 steel bars scattered on the ground. More than one hundred fire extinguishers were all beaten up and dented. No one could sleep that night. Many people who had just entered the factory and summer workers packed up their bags and left. At 6 o'clock we were near the factory entrance and noticed a Xinjiang person sneaking out. By that time, it seemed that in addition to the factory workers, everyone in the surrounding neighborhoods understood the evil deeds of the Xinjiang people. All the men present surrounded him and beat him, pummeling him with bricks like basketballs! We hadn't been beating him 20 seconds when the anti-riot team rushed to the scene, and when we heard the police we scattered. The Xinjiang guy who had been beaten had fallen down in a pool of blood. It took over 100 sanitation workers in the dormitory area of ​​the Rising Sun Factory two hours to wash away the bloodstains. Lanjz Published on 2009-6-26 17:03 ”

What happened with these Han people? Should the crime of one person (assuming that the situation of reposted by the moderator was true) be borne by all Uyghur migrant workers in the factory or by all Uyghurs? Is it true that "every Han person was desperate to retaliate against the Xinjiang people" even "a Xinjiang person sneaking out" wasn't let go and "all the men present surrounded him and beat him, pummeling him with bricks like basketballs!" To the point where "The Xinjiang guy who had been beaten had fallen down in a pool of blood. It took over 100 sanitation workers in the dormitory area of ​​the Rising Sun Factory two hours to wash away the bloodstains."

What is the logic? A racial vendetta?


According to the information released by the government in the last two days, the alleged rape of Han girls by Xinjiang people was purely a rumor! But can we conclude from this that the cause of this incident is entirely due to a rumor?

Beijinger Yang Jia killed several policemen in Shanghai. Many Han people supported him online and offline, and even regarded him as a hero in their hearts. A Han surnamed Zhou in Shache County, Xinjiang (where he is still a teacher) molested several Uyghur girls, and  when the incident was posted on the Internet by Uyghur Internet users (Xinjiang is the most severely blocked area in China, especially for Uyghurs), there were still many Han people making "cynical remarks." I don’t know how many murders, arson, robberies, rapes...etc. happen every month in Han society? Why haven't we seen mass vendettas due to the different ancestral homes of the "criminals." The reason is simple, they are all Han people!!

So why did the Shaoguan incident (I call it the 6.26 incident) turn into a vendetta against the Uyghurs because of "rumors"? There were  rumors of a large-scale ethnic vendetta among two ethnic groups in Kosovo. It was later confirmed that there was an organization behind the rumors and it was all premeditated. So what is hidden behind the 6.26 incident?

I think that the recent blizzards in Guangdong, the natural disasters (earthquakes) in Sichuan, Gansu and other places, as well as the man-made disasters that occur every day in various parts of China, and the vendettas in Shaoguan, have at the very least debunked this myth for us: "That the People’s Republic of China is a paradise for people of all ethnic groups, where society is stable, ethnic groups are harmonious, and there is no ethnic discrimination. Each of the 56 ethnic groups is a flower."

However, as everyone has seen so far, in China's Guangdong, the most typical Han Chinese settlement area, and the so-called most open province in China, under natural and man-made disasters, extremely serious ethnic conflicts have broken out. Is it because they have been whitewashing peace and concealing contradictions in the past? Or is it as the Han people say, "We are all birds of feather who fly our separate ways in the face of difficulties?"

In fact, I think China is just like the Soviet Union, it is something deliberately sculpted by individuals. On the surface, it seems that all ethnic groups are living together in harmony. If there is a foreign attack, all ethnic groups will work together to resist. But the problem is that if the external pressure disappears, the conflicts between various groups and communities will emerge again, and even reach the point of irreconcilability.

For such a country, in order to maintain its own domestic stability, then the managers must find an external pressure. But if this pressure proves to be unreliable or if there are differences in domestic opinions, the conflicts between various groups and communities will suddenly reemerge, and even reach the point of irreconcilability.

Their ethnic unity and friendship are all strategic moves to create conformity to their own ethnic requirements and accomodate their models. Therefore, when you look at these countries' laws regarding ethnic groups, you see the systems never get implemented. On the surface, there is a sense of harmony, but domestically there is mutual suspicion and caution. There is a veneer of unity over a base of division, which is to say there is no confidence in, or ambition for, true respect for all ethnic groups.

Saturday, March 20, 2021

CCTV "Dialogue" Presenter Yang Rui's 2012 Comments on Foreigners, Jews, and Journalists

In 2012 Yang Rui (杨锐) was a presenter for "Dialogue," a program on CCTV-9, the English-language channel of China's state-run China Central Television. The following is a chronicle of events relating to several Sina Weibo posts that Yang made in 2012, and which were subsequently deleted (whether by Yang or Sina Weibo remains a question).

May 8, 2012 - Chinese Government Expels Melissa Chan, Al Jazeera's Correspondent in Beijing, From China

May 14, 2012 – Beijing Public Security Bureau Announces 100 Day Crackdown on Illegals
May 14, Beijing police announced that they would cleanse the capital of foreigners who had entered illegally, were staying illegally, or were working illegally. The number to report this is 010-64038685. We understand that there are almost 200,000 foreigners in Beijing on any given day, and that some illegal aliens are mixed in amongst them, including the "three illegals" foreigners, most of whom have no source of livelihood, no fixed residence, no appropriate jobs, and some have even come to China for the specific purpose of violating the law. The Beijing police will adopt measures such as sweeps of specific districts, regular checks of specific businesses, and strict checks of visa applications. They will increase the scope of rectification of the "three illegals" and other foreigners who violate the law, and at the same time will gather information on "three illegals" foreigners from the public. [Details]
[Related Topic] Foreign Guy Subdued by Onlookers After Sexually Assaulting Chinese Girl, Currently Detained by Beijing Public Security.
May 16, 2012  - Yang Rui  Says "Sweep Out the Foreign Trash"
The Public Security Bureau wants to sweep out the foreign trash: arrest foreign thugs, protect naive girls, Wudaokou and Sanlitun are disaster areas. Cut off the foreign snake heads, the jobless from the U.S. and Europe who come to China to corral money, engage in human trafficking, and spread deceitful lies to encourage emigration. Identify foreign spies, they find Chinese girls and shack up with them, and their job is to gather intelligence, pretending to be tourists while surveying and mapping for Japan, South Korea, the US and Europe, and improve GPS. Kicked out that foreign bitch, closed Al Jazeera's Beijing bureau, and shut up and kick out those who demonize China.
This post was deleted. Original URL:

May 18, 2012 – The Wall Street Journal Reports Yang Rui's Tweet, and Yang Responds

In "State TV Host Offers Advice on How to Throw Out ‘Foreign Trash’" the Wall Street Journal wrote:
In a rather perplexing move this week, Chinese Central Television host Yang Rui added a dose of poison to an already vitriolic debate about the behavior of foreigners in the Chinese capital by posting a message online in which he accused foreign spies in the city of pursuing Chinese women to cover up their activities, blamed Western residents for encouraging Chinese people to move abroad and appeared to take a certain vulgar delight in the recent expulsion of al-Jazeera correspondent Melissa Chan.
Yang Rui responded to the Wall Street Journal's report on his Sina Weibo  (
Sweep out the foreign trash, what is the idea behind the Wall Street Journal's report? It implies I'm xenophobic, hardly! There are many scumbag foreigners in China, but there are also many outstanding friendly and law-abiding foreigners. Look at this again, sweeping and cleaning, approaching relationships objectively, Chinese people are extremely hospitable, some to the point of fawning on foreign powers, to the point of surrendering their personal and national honor. Have a nice weekend, buddies, have fun on weekend.
清扫洋垃圾,华尔街日报这么在意?暗示我排外,扯吧!在华的外国人渣不少,优秀的友好的和尊守中国法律的外国人也很多。甄别一下,打扫卫生,理性相处,中国人是非常好客的,有些好客得有些媚外,丧失了人格和国格。周末愉快,buddies, have fun on weekend
May 19, 2012 – Charlie Custer Calls on CCTV to Fire Yang, and Yang Responds

At 9:55 am, Charlie Custer, a foreigner working in China, posted the following on the ChinaGeeks Sina Weibo: (
Strongly call for CCTV to fire @HostYangRui! (Please look at the attached image, and if you agree, repost!)
Twenty minutes later, Yang responded with two posts on his own Sina Weibo.
You're so worked up and self-conscious. You really look unsettled and are behaving badly, part of the trash that should be swept out, and I suggest the police do a little investigating into his background. You're advised to calm down and take a look at this blogger's other posts. I oppose xenophobia, and was referring to that minority of foreign thugs, foreign trash who can't find jobs in their own countries. Foreigners who come to China to run wild of low quality need to be deported. You go ahead and get your ticket for a seat, my job is done here.
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He has foreign nationality, just take a look at a few of his hysterical posts and you'll know. //@WuSuYun: If he is a foreigner, he's definitely foreign trash, and is feeling scared he'll be deported. If he is Chinese, then he is definitely a reverse-racist, you say drive out the foreign trash, and he feels sorrow.
他是外籍,看他的歇斯底里的几条博文就知道了 //@无俗韵:如果他是外国人,定是洋垃圾,感到了被驱逐的恐惧;如果他是中国人,定是逆向种族主义者,你说驱赶洋垃圾,他却如丧考妣。
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Later in the evening of May 19, Yang followed up with another post.
One last point, foreigners who have no skills and are unemployed in their own country who come to China can only find one job that is stable and respectable, and that's peddling English. This isn't debatable. 1. They can earn money, the market is big. 2. They can encourage emigration, collecting fees as middlemen. 3. They make girlfriends, getting close with home tutoring, and using the girls' affection to illegally obtain intelligence. Many of these kinds of foreigners get tourist visas to come to China to do black work, eating and drinking and whoring, some of them engage in organized crime.
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May 20, 2012 – Yang Rui Threatens to Sue Charlie Custer

On the morning of May 20, Yang Rui made two additional posts on his Sina Weibo about Charlie Custer, both of which were subsequently deleted.
This person's real name is Charlie Custer, and he actually has been interviewed by the China Daily and has used our channel in order to promote his own website ChinaGeeks that specializes in translating Chinese language blogs. He has been mentioned in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal, and has relied on hawking Chinese topics to gain a modicum of notoriety. Now he's biting the hand that feeds him. The reason he's so worked up is directly related to his long-term criticism of China. He used to be an English teacher in Harbin, and has no other skills.
此人真名叫Charlie Custer, 竟然也接受过中国日报的采访,利用了我们栏目,为自己专门翻译中文博客的网站ChinaGeeks扬名立腕,被纽约时报和华尔街日报提到过,是靠吆喝中国话题出了点小名气。现在过河拆桥。他之所以如此亢奋和激进跟他长期批评中国有关。他先是在哈尔滨教英语,没有别的技能。
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Custer seriously damaged my reputation, and I retain the right to sue him. This affair is entirely the result of his malicious speculation, and he is inciting racial hatred. I can see his eyes are filled with anti-Chinese hatred! I hope he will respect China's laws. I would also add that he was never an appropriate guest for my program, and compared to most Western guests, for example James Fallows, his quality sucks.
Custer严重伤害了我的名誉,我保留起诉他的权利。此事完全是他恶意炒作自己,煽动种族仇恨. 我看他的眼睛里充满了反华仇恨!希望他遵守中国法律。顺便说一下,他当初根本不配上我的节目,与绝大部分优秀的西方嘉宾相比,比如@JamesFallows 他的水平很烂。
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May 21, 2012 – Yang Says He Was Not Referring to Any Group

From the China Daily's "Host May Sue After Claims of Xenophobia." Some excerpts:
Yang Rui, who hosts Dialogue, an English-language show on CCTV News, said Charlie Custer, editor of China Geeks, had "damaged his reputation". He is consulting friends about filing a lawsuit, he said. . . . . 
"His remarks are nothing but libel against a sincere and conscientious host who has been devoted to international cultural exchanges for 13 years," Yang said in a telephone interview. . . . . 
"It's necessary that foreigners remember they need to abide by local customs and laws when they are in China," the TV host said, although he added that his post did not refer to any individual or group, and that the wording may have been misunderstood by some people. 
"I stick to my opinion, even if my wording is harsh," Yang said.
May 22, 2012 – Yang Says He Was Referring to a Group

From the Wall Street Journal's "State TV Host Responds to Controversy Over ‘Foreign Trash’":
On Monday [May 21], Mr. Yang sent The Wall Street Journal a statement addressing the controversy around his Sina Weibo post. It goes as follows: 
For a long time, many young Chinese took it for granted that Westerners are well-educated and polite since they come from industrial nations, where the rule of law prevails. Most of them are friendly. They travel, do business and make a living here honestly. But, some are not, as a number of recent videos involving the apparent attempted rape of a young Chinese girl on one of the main streets of our capital and the disrespect shown to a middle aged woman on a Chinese train. 
The sensational nature of the empowered new media means that some isolated events can ignite strong public reactions. After looking at these incidents I termed these expats "foreign trash," and I believe they should be brought to justice if they are found to have violated our laws. I want to separate them from the silent majority in the expat communities who obey and respect our culture and society. Singling out these Foreign Trash serves to protect the good reputation of decent Westerners. My posting of May 16 is a wake-up call. Western and Chinese, no one should be above the law.  
I hope this will put this issue to rest for those who are willing to listen.
May 24, 2012 – Shanghaiist Blog Publishes Yang's Tweets About Jews

The Shanghaiist blog published a post entitled "Is CCTV host Yang Rui an Anti-Semite?" The post consisted of five of Yang Rui's Sina Weibo posts from 2011 and 2012. Here are three of them:
The media and the republic go up and down together. The US has done this to the extreme, but Wall Street's greed was not exposed because the Jews who manage the finances also control the media. Why does the US media not dare to support the call for the establishment of a Palestinian state? They're afraid of getting fired by their Jewish bosses. When I interviewed the chairman of the US Jewish Association and expressed my doubts about this, he snarled at me ferociously and said that in America no one would dare to speak to him this way. Like a mafia don. Do not idealize American press freedom.
This post was deleted. Original URL:
Americans are free but not equal -- two party politics opposes government interference with society, after the financial crisis blew up not one person has been brought to task.  Whoever wants to be the President has to curry favor with the Jews because they hold both the financial and media worlds in their grasp. Whoever wins a general election must yield to the choices of the voters. Average Americans have the right to bear firearms, but the right to be free from harm is extremely not equal. America has freedom in immigration but there are several million illegal immigrants, and these illegal immigrants essentially become like black slaves.
This post was deleted. Original URL:
Who can convince me that US foreign policies have brought peace, stability, and prosperity to the Middle East and Central Asia? Who can convince me that US foreign policies are truly benefiting others and are not selfish? Post 9/11 America is bloodthirsty and has greatly robbed the world of peace. But has it reflected on its flawed biased policy of shielding Israel? It is impossible because the Jews are too powerful in the US domestically, controlling finance and the media. You need the support of the Jews in a presidential election!
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Yang's thoughts on Jews in America, before they were deleted.
August 21, 2012 – Yang Rui Says He Apologized to Jewish Scholar For Any Misunderstanding

Yang posted the following on his Weibo -
Recently I had some sincere communication with a renowned American Jewish scholar that I respect regarding my views on Israel and Jews: during World War II China took many risks to protect Jews, and I have profound sympathy for what Jews experienced at that time, respect for the unity of Jews and their enormous success in the realms of politics and commerce, and appreciation for Sino-Israel relations. He praised the Dialogue program. I emphasized that I deeply apologized if there was any misunderstanding caused. Dialogue and communication is extremely important.
October 16, 2012 – Yang Says He Has Apologized for Harm His Incautious Words Caused Melissa Chan

At around noon on October 16, Yang made the following two posts on his Weibo at and
[My Attitude Toward Western Media -1]: News media values have common characteristics, for example seeking out novelty, public opinion supervision, and commercialism. However, I also understand the Chinese government's concerns about social stability and national security, and I do not approve of demonizing China. From the time that China Central Television's English International Channel came into being I have pursued a news ideal: using dialogue to frankly look into prejudices. Our Dialogue program has realized this. Weibo has opened another forum, mutually criticize, eliminate misunderstanding. 
[My Attitude Toward Western Media -2]: Since I do not approve of demonizing each other, since mid-May I have, at many times and in different venues, expressed my sincere apology for the harm my incautious words caused the former female Beijing correspondent for Al Jazeera English. As for the Chinese government's attitude towards here, that has nothing to do with me. My Weibo space is mine personally, and the author takes sole responsibility. A suddenly-risen China needs more self-confidence and frankness, when criticizing others don't fear being criticized, shouldn't be terrified of speech.
At around 5:00 pm that same day he posted the following in response to a user writing to him that "It really took a lot of guts to make a 'sincere apology' like this. Would big-name Western media journalists sincerely apologize for their inappropriate reports on China?" (这样“真诚的道歉”确是需要有勇气的。西媒大牌记者是否也为其对华报道的失当真诚道歉呢?)
It really was incautious to use "bitch," the foreign correspondents in China united to rally a counter-attack, which once again proves 1, the influence of our program, 2, public figures must be circumspect in their speech, 3, when facing Western criticism you can't demonize the other side, and must maintain some decorum when bandying words, can't be like CNN commentator Jack Cafferty's insults to China.
"泼妇 "用语的确不慎,在华外国记者集体抱团反击,再次证明1,我们栏目的影响力,2,公众人物言论必须谨慎,3,面对西媒批评不能妖魔化对方,舆论交锋也要有风度,不能学CNN的评论员卡福蒂的辱华
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October 19, 2012 - Yang Sends Email to Former Dialogue Guests

According to the Wall Street Journal, Yang wrote:
Since I do not approve of mutual demonization, from mid-May until now, I have on numerous occasions and in multiple venues expressed my sincere apologies to the ex-Beijing correspondent for al-Jazeera who was wounded by my incautious words. The attitude of China’s government towards her has nothing to do with me. My Weibo account is personal and writers should take responsibility for what they write. A rising China needs to be more self-confident and candid, and should not be afraid of being criticized for criticizing others – it should not be afraid of public speech.

Translation: Huang Xuqin and Wang Jianbing Inciting Subversion Indictment

On June 14, 2024, the Twitter account "Free Huang Xueqin & Wang Jianbing 释放雪饼" (@FreeXueBing)  posted a copy of the last two p...